GAP Digest

There are 14 messages in this issue.

Topics in this digest:

           From: Runoko Rashidi <>
      2. some news from home
           From: Kenneth King <>
      3. The Tekhenw of Tuthmosis III
           From: Kenneth King <>
      4. Writing for the underdog
           From: Kenneth King <>
      5. Sources on Barbados' original name
           From: Kenneth King <>
      6. U.S. trained Haitian armed opposition
           From: Kenneth King <>
      7. Are Blacks Proudly Wearing the Badges of Slavery?
           From: Kenneth King <>
      8. UNESCO Initiates Study On Slavery
           From: Kenneth King <>
      9. It's a question of land
           From: Kenneth King <>
           From: Kenneth King <>
     11. US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide
           From: Kenneth King <>
           From: Runoko Rashidi <>
     13. Re: Trip to Brazil
           From: Runoko Rashidi <>
     14. Kids have African-Israeli identity, but Ethiopian parents still foreigners
           From: Kenneth King <>


Message: 1
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 13:07:09 -0800 (PST)
   From: Runoko Rashidi <>






“This book is about the history of Africa from the
origin of man to the present time. This is not just
another book on African history. It is, in my
opinion, one of the best books that has so far been
written on this subject.”
--John Henrik Clarke

It gives me great pleasure to contribute the Foreword
to this new edition of Introduction to African
Civilizations. Both John G. Jackson and John Henrik
Clark were icons to me, and major contributors to my
life as a historian. Since Dr. Clarke has provided an
excellent overview of the book in the Introduction,
here I would like to try to put the work in a kind of
historical context and provide a bit of biographical
data on the men involved.

John Glover Jackson, one of our greatest cultural
historians, was born on April 1, 1907, in Aiken, South
Carolina. Never short of cutting remarks, Jackson
would sometimes say that “I was born on April Fool’s
Day, and I’ve been a fool ever since!” Obviously,
this was not the case. At the age of fifteen Jackson
moved from South Carolina to Harlem, New York, where
he entered Stuyvesant High School. During his student
days he began to do historical research and was soon
writing short essays about African-American history
and culture. These essays were impressive enough that
in 1925, while still a high school student, he was
invited to write articles for Marcus Garvey’s
newspaper, the Negro World.

In addition to these growing activities as a writer,
in 1930 Jackson became a lecturer at both the
Ingersoll Forum and the Harlem Unitarian Church.
Among his teachers and associates during this
formative phase of his life were Hubert Henry Harrison
(whom Jackson would later refer to as the “Black
Socrates”), Arthur Alfonso Schomburg (the great
bibliophile and founder of the Schomburg Library),
Joel Augustus Rogers (a journalist and master
historian who probably did more to popularize African
history than any scholar of the twentieth century),
and Dr. Willis Nathaniel Huggins (a chief mentor to
both John G. Jackson and John Henrik Clarke).

Willis Nathaniel Huggins, a little known figure today,
but without whom Introduction to African Civilizations
might never have been written, was born February 7,
1886, in Selma, Alabama. Huggins comes boldly to us
as one of the most active African-American scholars
and supporters of Ethiopia after its invasion and
occupation by Italian fascists from 1935 to 1941.
Indeed, beginning in 1935, Dr. Huggins was named
executive director of the International Council of the
Friends of Ethiopia and was commissioned to deliver an
appeal on behalf of Ethiopia to the League of Nations
in Geneva, Switzerland.

This is a critical and insufficiently documented phase
in the saga of African people and Jackson was always
anxious to point it out and discuss it. In 1932,
Jackson became the Associate Director of the Blyden
Society. Named after Edward Wilmot Blyden, one of the
outstanding African-American leaders of the nineteenth
century, the Blyden Society acted most gallantly as an
Ethiopian support group. Among the very early and
most talented students to come out of the Blyden
Society was Dr. John Henrik Clarke. Professor Jackson
had a remarkable memory, possessed a keen sense of
humor, and enjoyed sharing his life story with those
he thought could appreciate it. One mid-1980s
afternoon in Chicago he told me that:

“Rogers introduced me to Dr. Willis Nathaniel Huggins
who had a B.A. from the University of Chicago, an M.A.
from Columbia University, a Ph.D. from Fordham
University, and he did historical research at Oxford
University in England. Around 1932, Dr. Huggins
established a little group to study African history at
the Harlem YMCA. He called the group the Blyden
Society. After Rogers introduced me, he asked me to
join it. He was Director. He made me Associate
Director. Among our students were Bayard Rustin and
John Henrik Clarke. Rustin decided to pull out and
join the communists. Clarke was writing poetry. He
told me that I changed his life. He said that he was
wasting his time writing poetry, which only a damn
fool would write. Huggins and I told him that he
should be a historian. He says that we put him on the
right track.”

In 1934, along with Dr. Huggins, Jackson wrote A Guide
to the Study of African History: Directive Lists for
Schools and Clubs. In 1937, the same team wrote An
Introduction to African Civilizations with Main
Currents in Ethiopian History. The latter work, a
direct precursor of the present text, was actually
published by the Blyden Society. According to Jackson
biographer Larry Crowe, “Huggins would also open what
some think to be the first Black book store in Harlem,
The Blyden Book Store on 7th Avenue.”

John Jackson lived in New York for five decades.
Although these were exceptionally arduous years for
him, with race-prejudice, poverty and illness his
familiar companions, he continued to produce
well-researched, informative and provocative texts. In
1939 he authored Ethiopia and the Origin of
Civilization, and Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth in
1941. His discerning literary contributions to The
Truthseeker Magazine were published regularly from
1930 until 1955. In addition to Introduction to
African Civilizations and his works with Dr. Huggins,
Jackson authored several major books, including Man,
God, and Civilization, Christianity Before Christ, and
Ages of Gold and Silver.

I first read Introduction to African Civilizations in
1978 during a trip to Mexico. I was young and
enthusiastic, and this was my first big international
trip. Although the trip itself was poorly planned, I
managed to salvage it because I brought along
Jackson’s book. Soon, I became enraptured by it.
With Dr. Chancellor James Williams’ Destruction of
Black Civilizations and Malcolm X Speaks it became a
critical text in my career as a historian. John G.
Jackson showed that African people were a global
people, and that the history of the African did not
begin as a servant and slave. Psychologically, at
least, Jackson’s work helped liberate me as a human

John G. Jackson taught and lectured at colleges and
universities throughout the United States, including
City College of New York and Northeastern University.
I met professor Jackson for the first time in 1982
while working at Compton College. I remember him as a
large, elderly, light-complexioned Black man who spoke
with a deep booming voice. It was my job at the
college to develop cultural awareness programs and
bring in guest speakers. Getting professor Jackson
was one of my first big triumphs, and I believe that
it was one of his only lectures given in California.
His lecture was memorable, but what I most vividly
recall were our private conversations, sometimes
during meals, other times hunting in used book stores,
and still other times just strolling around campus.
After our initial encounter, we spent many hours in
person and on the phone dissecting history,
scholarship, politics, and much more. John Glover
Jackson died in Chicago, Illinois in October 1993.
The twilight years of his life were spent in a nursing
home in southside Chicago. He remains one of my great heroes.


Message: 2
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 10:31:13 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: some news from home

Hotep GAP family.  This is an email from our brotha
Mvogo in Cameroon. I felt like I was home and I wanted
to share.  Peace, Sheba

Hello Nguan i Nya.

Just want to give you this few note.

This is actually the end of the dry season : The
preparation time, preparation of farms. According to
some, the sun was so strong this year that they
foresee a good rainy season. It's good for some plant
but not for all. Every where back to the village you
can see smoke. Near or far in the bushes or even near
the road or pathways. After that the men has cut the
grass, that the sun has dry them, the rest is for the
fire. The long column of smoke seems to join the cloud
that are coming closer and closer. When the atmosphere
is more heavy you can fill smoke everywhere. Farmers
mostly villagers are getting their farm ready for the
rainy seasons. One or two rain already in some part
this year. Some people are barely chase from the bush
by night. They have spent all day long... People from
town those that are not familiar with village life
always wonder why and how one can stay all day long in
the forest. What do they eat? Pack lunch but mostly
all types of tubercles (cassava, potatoes, yams...)
grilled directly in the available fire. Even though
many rivers are dry still there is always almost a
fresh source for water. When any how there is none
care is taken to bring some from home. This is an old
farm, it always have something to offer that is the
remaining tubercle that has grows wild without any
care after the farm has been abandon for regeneration
or a stem that has escape the harvest some 3, 4, 5...,
years ago. This period of time work is not the most
difficult one in the year for food. The sowing time is
the most difficult one. This time, the work is much
more relax, stories and laughing can be heard at
distances specially when children are present. They
spit all fruit trees as it is also their flourishing
time. How their holidays will be depends on. Would
they have to care more about their older sister or
moms threat or there will be enough fruit to balance
the power in food?

When comes the first rain, what a nice smell: the
ground. You takes several deep breath just as if you
want to capture it just keep breathing without
stopping. This sweetness of the ground nothing
comparable with it is particular this nice ground
smell, particular l tell you. The very next coming
days, eyes keep tracking termites places. Oh this one
is for this night. All the house is mobilize along
with some neighbors, all the lamps are collected and
if far from home that is deep in the bush, you have to
spent the night there waiting, a confident wait sure
of your important catch.  When at 3 they finally comes
out and depending on how you choose to captured them,
that you go back home in the morning with baskets and
baskets of 'SIL' (termites) then this is ASIL, the
'ASIL season' One of the fourth yearly one in this
part of Home. Their taste seems to be better than that
of the passing seasons.

This is the time of preparation, preparation for
planting seed, preparation for ensuring their growing,
preparation for tomorrow's harvest. If your parcel is
not well prepared it is in the same way that you'll
have difficulties for planting, growing, and sowing

Up to this day now many have already start planting.

Peace and blessings.



Message: 3
   Date: Wed, 31 Mar 2004 08:18:30 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: The Tekhenw of Tuthmosis III




Message: 4
   Date: Wed, 31 Mar 2004 08:10:03 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: Writing for the underdog

Writing for the underdog

The noted litterateur, who is in the vanguard of a
national movement aimed at promoting the rights of the
downtrodden, says Dalit writing is fast gaining
international currency. In a chat with N. J. Nair. 

WHICHEVER THE language, tales of suffering are the
same the world over and the oppressed can easily
identify themselves with Dalit literature, says
Sharankumar Limbale.

Mr. Limbale was in town to attend a seminar on Dalit
writing organised by the University of Kerala.

Globalisation has opened up a world of opportunities
for the downtrodden, he says. It has helped the
regional writers to transcend geographical limits and
now they have better reach and more readers all over
the world.

International publishers are keen on translating and
publishing Dalit literature, he says. The awareness
created among the backward communities has kindled
their interest in conditions in other parts of the
world. Local industrialists who are unequipped to face
the competition and those who profess an orthodox
outlook are resisting globalisation to protect their
vested interests.

Mr. Limbale, who works as the director of students'
welfare at Yeshwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open
University, was tormented after he published his
autobiography in Marathi, `Akkar Mashi' (The Outcast)
in 1984. He had to keep away from his hamlet, Hannur
at Sholapur district in Maharashtra, for 10 years.

"My family was thrilled to learn that I was writing my
autobiography. It related all the travails we had to
undergo. My father belonged to the upper caste and he
had neglected the family. But once the book was
published, my mother felt disgraced and my sister's
family relations became strained. Not only my family,
but also the entire village revolted against me for
publicly humiliating them," he says.

The book was translated into a number of languages
including English and was discussed all over the
country. The residents of Mr. Limbale's own village,
who had earlier disowned him, as well as others who
shared his plight, realised the need for bringing
their woes to light and came out strongly in support
of Mr.Limbale.

"Now, I am in the forefront of a movement to uphold
the rights of the Dalits and the Backward Classes all
over the country and my wife and children are all
actively involved in it," he says.

Mr. Limbale says the `creamy layer' among Dalits is
opposed to such exposes. They are interested only in
protecting their image and position and are not
concerned about the plight of their suffering
brethren. "When they reach portals of power, they use
the poor in their community to bargain for more
benefits," he says.

According to Mr. Limbale, every nation has a twin
identity, one for the privileged and the other for the
downtrodden. "There are places in North India where
people despise the voice and even the shadow of a
Dalit. There they feed ants with sugar, but are
reluctant to give a drop of water to Dalits. We hope
this state of affairs will undergo a drastic change in
the coming two decades," he says.


Message: 5
   Date: Wed, 31 Mar 2004 08:27:17 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: Sources on Barbados' original name

Hotep, responding to the article about Cricket, the
author mentioned that the original name for Barbados
was "Ichirigounaim". Where did that name come from,
what language is it, what does it mean, when did they
stop using it, and what does the name Barbados mean
and what language is it? This is surely a revelation
to me.Any sources that you can cite to further any
research will surely be appreciated.



Message: 6
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 09:31:25 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: U.S. trained Haitian armed opposition

U.S. trained Haitian armed opposition

SANTO DOMINGO.— The Xinhua news agency has reported
that the groups which rose up against Haitian
President Jean-Bertrand Aristide were armed and
trained by the United States in the Dominican
Republic, according to a preliminary report presented

That statement is the provisional conclusion by the
Haiti Investigation Committee made up of religious and
legal representatives from several different countries
and created in 1991 by former U.S. Justice Secretary
Ramsey Clark.

"Two hundred soldiers from the U.S. Special Forces
arrived in the Dominican Republic with the
authorization of President Hipólito Mejía as part of a
military operation to train Haitian rebels," revealed
the report that was circulated in the Dominican
capital, Santo Domingo.

Father Luis Barrios and lawyer Brian Concannon, both
members of the committee, presented the preliminary
results of the investigation that contradicts the
Dominican authorities, who described the handing over
of weapons to rebel Haitians as "surreal and

According to the report, Aristide reiterated to the
committee that "he had not resigned (from the
presidency of Haiti) and was kidnapped (last March 1)
by the U.S. government" so as to remove him from

Committee member Teresa Gutiérrez asked how it came
about that rebel leaders were able to train and arm
themselves in the Dominican Republic if Mejía’s
government had assured his Haitian counterpart
(Aristide) on several occasions that he would not
allow that kind of activity on his territory.

Speaking at a press conference, Barrios said that the

committee possessed many reports confirming that the
Haitian conspirators were armed and trained in
Dominican military camps situated in the eastern
region of San Isidro and the western areas of Haina
and Neiba.

"It is clear that Dominican territory was also used by
the U.S. government for the purpose of providing
support to the Haitian opposition," stated the priest
who, along with other committee members, mentioned
various incidents including the deaths of two
Dominican soldiers involving armed members of the
Haitian coup faction.

The committee is due to present its definitive report
to U.S. Congress, the Dominican Republic, the
Organization of American States (OAS) and the
Caribbean Community (CARICOM), which last does not
recognize the new regime in Haiti.


Message: 7
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 10:44:57 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: Are Blacks Proudly Wearing the Badges of Slavery?

Are Blacks Proudly Wearing the Badges of Slavery?    
Written by Alton H. Maddox, Jr.
Friday, 12 March 2004

If you ask most Black people who freed enslaved
Africans, the answer would be President Abraham
Lincoln through his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
when the country was divided into two sovereigns.  If
those same persons were asked to name the badges of
slavery, the answer would be incomplete at best.  No
race can enjoy freedom if it is unable to objectively
verify the presence of its elements.

Blacks in New York like Blacks throughout the country
are facing challenging problems that are not being
challenged through creative and strategic thinking and
action.  If you list the problems on the left side of
a page and the solutions on the right side of the
page, there would be more problems than solutions.
When a solution is proposed, it amounts to knocking on
the wrong doors, talking to the wrong people and
raising the wrong questions.

The ruling class has made it profitable, personally,
for Black leaders to participate in activities that
are designed to fail. Politics is an example.  Blacks
run for high profile offices to gain media attention
and to profit personally from campaign finance laws
while ensuring that Blacks will never occupy those
high profile offices individually or through a

These Blacks will also receive additional financial
rewards after failed campaigns including a possible
ticket to Hollywood, book advances, speeches, etc.
Through voting, Blacks also confirm to whites that
these persons are our leaders and should be allowed to
sit under the table to pick up the crumbs.

New York City is a classic example of a plantation.
Blacks are as happy as pigs in slop.  Any Black person
seeking to end the badges of slavery will lead a dog's
life in New York.  In other words, anyone who is
openly fighting white supremacy will not receive a
regular paycheck from any source.  These persons are
also a part of black, male unemployment.  Black
elected officials and leaders are a part of the

Black activists are employed on the plantation to lead
Blacks on wild goose chases.  Officials of the
Democratic Party are the plantation overseers.  There
are also slave drivers known as Black elected
officials.  You also have a horde of snitches and
two-legged bloodhounds.  Saboteurs are employed to
wreck any attempt to organize Africans in the spirit
of Marcus Garvey.  Black preachers, generally, are
white-based, propagandists or brainwashers.   Members
of the Black bourgeoisie are the plantation analysts
and the Wall Street-appointed mayor is the colonial

I do speak with authority.  Before I was indefinitely
suspended from the practice of law, I was able to
distinguish myself by being the first Black person in
the history of New York to secure a court order
requiring the City of New York to identify all of its
informants in the Black community.  This was no small
feat since I had to actually prove and authenticate
that I was not engaged in a fishing expedition.

In other words, I was quizzed by a judge on my
knowledge of informants.  This required me to identify
the informants while the judge checked the list from
the NYPD.  My personal knowledge of informants, in New
York City, however, is not the best evidence of the
list of informants.  The list itself is the best

The city argued that a disclosure of the list would
make it impossible to control the Black community.
This would lead to black liberation if this program
were abolished.  Stated another way, a destabilization
program is in effect.  The city's admission does prove
that a plantation system is in effect. 

An appeals court agreed and, therefore, reversed the
court order.  No other Black person has sought this
list, afterwards, and for good reason.  New York City
is indeed a plantation and there is a plantation
structure which not only controls Blacks but also
information vital to the liberation of our community.

No dissent can occur in New York without a script.  No
identifiable Black in New York is seeking to reverse
this deplorable situation.  Black switch-hitters are
employed to keep us in a state of confusion.  This
program employs more Blacks than any other employment
program in the city.

While well-meaning Blacks are attending rallies and
forums, purportedly designed to address and resolve
our problems, and are financing these assemblies, it
is clear that money is being thrown away since the two
major weapons that would aid and abet Blacks in
stopping Black oppression in its tracks are off

Black leaders will never call for a city-wide boycott
even though Blacks spend more money in New York City
than Latinos and Asians combined or, on the other
hand, whites.  This will never happen as long as
Blacks are unable to recognize a pacification program.
We have the capability to bring this city down to its
financial knees. 

Similarly, there will never be a call for a Black
political party unattached, in all respects, to the
Republican Party or the Democratic Party even though
Blacks constitute the greatest voting bloc in the
city.  Activism in New York City means wasting
energies and emptying black pocketbooks to finance our
own oppression.

All historically-oppressed groups, mired in
oppression, share a common thread.  They lack
independent, well-financed critical thinkers.  This is
why our ancestor, Dr. Amos Wilson, devoted substantial
pages in his book, Blueprint for Black Power, to think
tanks.  Our Black leaders are no more than political
rappers and entertainers.

The notion of think tanks had its origin in Kmt
(ancient Egypt).  Plato made this observation in
explaining the greatness of Kmt.  You must think
before you speak and think before you act.  This means
expert thinking rather than lay thinking.   Our
ancestors understood that leisure thinking produces
grand ideas.

The end of credible and well-documented facts should
not be the beginning of misguided opinions.  These
naked opinions drive our community with no
appreciation for facts into a subservient position.
At the very least, an opinion should be a
well-informed opinion with logic being a connector
between fact and opinion.

As a member of the Black masses, it is time for you to
act.  If the Black masses continue to play possum,
assassinations and jailings like those of Jesus
Christ, Martin L. King, Jr., Malcolm X, Fannie Lou
Hamer, Khallid Muhammad, Marcus Garvey, Callie House,
Assata Shakur, Mumia Abu-Jamal, Jamil Abdul-Jamal,
etc., will only escalate.  Through inaction, the Black
masses has in effect conspired with white supremacists
because these courageous brothers and sisters had to
take center stage with known death squads running
amuck, to attempt to resurrect us.


Message: 8
   Date: Wed, 31 Mar 2004 08:47:08 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: UNESCO Initiates Study On Slavery

UNESCO Initiates Study On Slavery

This Day (Lagos)

March 31, 2004

Bukola Olatunji

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is initiating a study
on the links between slavery and cultural diversity,
miscegenation of cultures, music and multilingualism,
Creole culture, culinary arts and modes of dress.

President of the General Conference of the
organisation, Prof. Michael Omolewa, who made his
known in a message delivered by him at the
International Seminar on Slave Trade in the Caribbean,
held at the Dominican Republic last week said the
study was in addition to scientific research and
information programmes focusing on the influence of
slavery on the cultures of all the concerned.

The seminar was in line with the resolution of the
General Conference to commemorate 200th year of the
abolition of slavery as one of its major programmes.
Omolewa had also visited Cuba penultimate week to talk
to the government on the same programme among other
priorities of UNESCO.

As a means of fortifying its efforts, the organisation
had proclaimed 2004 the International Year to
Commemorate the Struggle Against Slavery and its

The year seeks to contribute to a culture of tolerance
between races and people, inspired, Omolewa said, by
the need to conduct a historical study of the
trans-Atlantic and trans-Saharan slave trade and

"Consequently, it will highlight the social
interactions and political consequences that slavery
has generated among the peoples of Europe, Africa,
America and the Caribbean; and their cultural
pluralism", he added.

The project has elaborated a strategy for action to
mobilise and involve the scientific and artistic
communities, political authorities, local population
and the media. Tangible and intangible cultural
heritage of the slave trade and slavery are also to be
safe guarded.

The "Slave Route" Project, a flagship project of
UNESCO led to the recognition of slavery as a "crime
against humanity" by the world conference against
Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and related
Intolerance held in Durban in 2001.

The project has also explored the rich cultural
intangible heritage generated by slave trade in
Africa, which has left its mark on the formation of
many cultures and civilisations of the world. "Owing
to numerous factors", Omolewa reasoned, "Africa
remains one of the poorest continents in the world
today. Could one of these factors be the depletion of
the continent of its most precious resources? Its
human resources?", he asked.

He then submitted that, "there is no doubt that the
movement of millions of Africans to the new world has
a determining influence on the shaping of cultures,
transformation of the world and the interaction
between the peoples of Africa, Europe, America and the
Caribbean. Caribbean history and culture definitely
bear the stamp of African influence."

This is often expressed in the form of arts, most
notably in music inherited directly from rumba,
cha-cha, jazz and Gospel hymns. African imprint can be
found in Caribbean culture through such varied
expressions as poetry, proverbs, dances, and even
forms of clothing.

He noted that the Lucumi culture, which illustrates
some general principles about cultural reproduction
across space and time, is of Yoruba origin Omolewa,
who opened his address with a 68-word greeting in the
Yoruba Language, followed by an English translation of
the same explained that the language was spoken by
millions in Nigeria, Togo, Benin, Cuba, Brazil and
several Latin American countries. He later ended his
address with the same greeting in Spanish.

It was the second time that the Professor of Adult
Education would bring the Yoruba Language to an
international forum. He had used it to welcome
President Jacques Chirac to the 32nd Session of the
General Conference held in Paris last October. Tracing
its history, Omolewa said, "slavery in the Caribbean
as elsewhere was a cruel institution, a totalitarian
system for economic, political and social benefits
based on force, violence and racial ideology." When
Africans were taken to the Caribbean Island as slaves
between 1770 and 1840, they took their culture and
religion with them. Once in the new world, they were
forced to accept other forms of religion and culture,
but they did not abandon their traditions completely.
They found strength in the spiritual and cultural
traditions they carried with them. They created a new
form of worship with elements taken from both religion
and culture.

According to him, "the Dominican people played a key
role in breaking the silence. Despite great obstacles,
they succeeded in imposing the abolition of servitude
in the colonies and subsequent independence of their
country. They created the historical recognition of
their existence, which is indeed one of their truly
vital achievements as a nation."

Within the framework of the "Slave Route" project, an
inventory of sites of memory and resistance places in
the caribbean were carried out by the Museum
Associations of the Caribbean in 2000.

The protection and promotion of oral traditions on the
slave trade and slavery in the caribbean is planned
for the biennium 2004 - 2005. "For the benefit of a
living memory", Omolewa said,

"UNESCO's objective is to seek through descendants of
former slaves, ways to revitalize the memory of the
young in particular, by showing the tangible and
intangible traces of slavery and its abolition.

"This includes the revision of school textbooks and
promotion of intercultural learning and mutual respect
between cultures and people.


Message: 9
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 09:50:19 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: It's a question of land

It's a question of land


01 April 2004 07:32

A bold agrarian reform pledged 10 years ago by the new
dispensation in South Africa to rectify the injustices
of colonialism and apartheid has progressed slowly
with 80% of the land still held by the white minority,
fuelling rising impatience among the landless black

In 1995, the country's first democratic government of
Nelson Mandela introduced a two-pronged policy: to
return land or areas confiscated during apartheid from
blacks or mixed race people and to redistribute land
to reverse historical inequalities.

The aim was ambitious: to farm out 30% of the
85-million hectares of cultivable land in 15 years to
South Africa’s black majority. However, a decade after
the formal end of apartheid, the objective is a long
way off.

Only three percent of the land has been acquired by
the government under the "willing-buyer,
willing-seller" scheme and given out to about 700 000
black South Africans, according to official estimates.

The pugnacious Landless People's Movement (LPM) group
argues that at this pace it will take the government
80 years to achieve its goal.

Land is a highly sensitive and emotive issue in South
Africa as in the rest of the region and is not only
viewed as a means of production but is also linked to
hereditary rights and position as well as pomp and

It is also the place where ancestors are buried and
according to traditional belief they keep a watch on
their descendants from their final resting spot.

The government of Thabo Mbeki, who succeeded Nelson
Mandela as president in 1999, is perfectly conscious
of the emotive nature of land.

At the start of this year he signed an amendment to a
law on the restitution of land rights to speed up the
process initiated almost a decade back.

However, the government has hammered it in that the
process will not go the way of neighbouring Zimbabwe
where the expulsion of white commercial farmers has
fuelled violence and where a controversial land
reforms programme has led to a sharp downfall in
production, thereby plunging the once-prosperous
nation into crisis.

But in spite of the repeated pledges to strictly
adhere to law, the programme has not only sent alarm
bells ringing among some white farmers but also been
slammed by landless blacks as being toothless and

For Agri SA, the main farmers' union, the chief
sentiment is one of disappointment.

"We are disappointed that the government went ahead
with the amendment bill despite the obvious negative
effect such an expropriation process would have on
investor and business confidence in the agriculture
sector," it said.

The more radical but much less representative
Transvaal Agricultural Union was much more trenchant
and alarmist.

"It is clear that the government's haste to
expropriate land and to further ethnic cleansing will
inevitably place South Africa on the road to a
Zimbabwe situation," it has warned.

Mangaliso Kubheka, the national coordinator of the LPM
on the other hand refuses to be drawn into the
controversy whether South Africa will go the Zimbabwe
way but says the government has been woefully lacking
on the issue.

"I don't know the Zimbabwe situation," he said, but
added: "The (South African) government doesn't take
this problem seriously."

As the country's third multi-party election on April
14 draws near the LPM has stepped up the ante asking
supporters to abstain from a ballot which is widely
expected to return the ruling party for a third
straight term.

Kubheka, who puts the number of abysmally poor and the
landless at 26-million -- out of a total population of
44,8-million -- has also warned of forcible occupation
of land on voting day, provoking a strong reaction
from Mbeki's African National Congress.

The ruling party has termed the threats as
"hooliganism" and clearly said it will not tolerate
"any act calculated at intimidating people and
stopping them from exercising their right to vote".

In 2001, South Africa witnessed some forcible land
occupation -- not linked to farmland but merely some
abysmally poor people staking some land to build a

But the government has lashed out against such land
occupations and warned clearly that it will not allow
any situation like the one in Zimbabwe. - Sapa-AFP


Message: 10
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 10:55:55 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>

Hello GAP Family,

I think that people conducting tours in Africa and
other places should explain the conditions of the
country that they are visiting before they accept
payments from the travellers.  If people know ahead of
time that they may need to use bushes instead of
bathrooms and there may be no soap and water for them
to wash their hands afterwards they can prepare
better. I made a habit of carrying toilet paper, soap
and water with me while I was travelling in Ghana.  I
initally went to Ghana for a Black Studies conference
and the reason why many of the "knee grows" were there
is because they wanted to document on their vitas that
they had been to Africa and did a presentation there.
The roomate that I was assigned to share a room with
said that she would only come out of her hotel room to
do her presentation and to visit a Christian church.
She also stated that she did not want any of the
people touching her.  She and many other members of
our group yelled at the hotel employees like they were
slaves.  I on the other hand was very nice to the
employees and they ended up giving me a lot of free
services that others were paying for.  Many people
stopped tipping the workers after finding out that it
was not expected. I continued to tip at the same rate
that I would tip with in the US and some of them would
earn a days salary based on just one tip.  I saw it as
a chance to behave and be treated like a rich person
and I thoroughly enjoyed, made alot of friends and was
received the special honor of being given an African
name.  However, I feel very strongly that an
orientation of some sort prior to finalizing any plans
is in order.



Message: 11
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 10:25:15 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide

US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide

Classified papers show Clinton was aware of 'final
solution' to eliminate Tutsis

Rory Carroll in Johannesburg
Wednesday March 31, 2004
The Guardian

President Bill Clinton's administration knew Rwanda
was being engulfed by genocide in April 1994 but
buried the information to justify its inaction,
according to classified documents made available for
the first time. Senior officials privately used the
word genocide within 16 days of the start of the
killings, but chose not to do so publicly because the
president had already decided not to intervene.

Intelligence reports obtained using the US Freedom of
Information Act show the cabinet and almost certainly
the president had been told of a planned "final
solution to eliminate all Tutsis" before the slaughter
reached its peak.

It took Hutu death squads three months from April 6 to
murder an estimated 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
and at each stage accurate, detailed reports were
reaching Washington's top policymakers.

The documents undermine claims by Mr Clinton and his
senior officials that they did not fully appreciate
the scale and speed of the killings.

"It's powerful proof that they knew," said Alison des
Forges, a Human Rights Watch researcher and authority
on the genocide.

The National Security Archive, an independent
non-governmental research institute based in
Washington DC, went to court to obtain the material.

It discovered that the CIA's national intelligence
daily, a secret briefing circulated to Mr Clinton, the
then vice-president, Al Gore, and hundreds of senior
officials, included almost daily reports on Rwanda.
One, dated April 23, said rebels would continue
fighting to "stop the genocide, which ... is spreading

Three days later the state department's intelligence
briefing for former secretary of state Warren
Christopher and other officials noted "genocide and
partition" and reported declarations of a "final
solution to eliminate all Tutsis".

However, the administration did not publicly use the
word genocide until May 25 and even then diluted its
impact by saying "acts of genocide".

Ms Des Forges said: "They feared this word would
generate public opinion which would demand some sort
of action and they didn't want to act. It was a very
pragmatic determination."

The administration did not want to repeat the fiasco
of US intervention in Somalia, where US troops became
sucked into fighting. It also felt the US had no
interests in Rwanda, a small central African country
with no minerals or strategic value.

William Ferroggiaro, of the National Security Archive,
said the system had worked. "Diplomats, intelligence
agencies, defence and military officials - even aid
workers - provided timely information up the chain,"
he said.

"That the Clinton administration decided against
intervention at any level was not for lack of
knowledge of what was happening in Rwanda."

Many analysts and historians fault Washington and
other western capitals not just for failing to support
the token force of overwhelmed UN peacekeepers but for
failing to speak out more forcefully during the

Some of the Hutu extremists orchestrating events might
have heeded such warnings, they have suggested.

Mr Clinton has apologised for those failures but the
declassified documents undermine his defence of
ignorance. "The level of US intelligence is really
amazing," said Mr Ferroggiaro. "A vast array of
information was available."

On a visit to the Rwandan capital, Kigali, in 1998 Mr
Clinton apologised for not acting quickly enough or
immediately calling the crimes genocide.

In what was widely seen as an attempt to diminish his
responsibility, he said: "It may seem strange to you
here, especially the many of you who lost members of
your family, but all over the world there were people
like me sitting in offices, day after day after day,
who did not fully appreciate the depth and speed with
which you were being engulfed by this unimaginable

A spokesperson for the William Jefferson Clinton
Foundation in New York said the allegations would be
relayed to the former president.

Forward Ever (by any means necessary)!
Karen C. Aboiralor 


Message: 12
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 14:09:56 -0800 (PST)
   From: Runoko Rashidi <>


R E F E R E N C E   N O T E S




"Any word that can be used so ambiguously as Negro
should be discarded, since, for descriptive purposes,
it is totally devoid of meaning."

--John G. Jackson

Jackson, John G. Ethiopia and the Origin of
Civilization: A Critical Review of the Evidence of
Archaeology, Anthropology, History and Comparative
Religion--According to the Most Reliable Sources and
Authorities. New York: The Blyden Society, 1939; rpt.
Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1985.

Jackson, John G. Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth. New
York: Truth Seeker Co., 1941.

Jackson, John G.  Introduction to African
Civilizations. Introduction and Additional
Bibliographical Notes by John Henrik Clarke. Secaucus:
Citadel, 1970.

Jackson, John G.  Man, God, and Civilization. New Hyde
Park: University Books, 1972.

Jackson, John G.  Foreword to Gerald Massey's
Lectures. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1974.

Jackson, John G. The Mysteries of Egypt. Chicago:
MASS, 1980.

Jackson, John G.  The African Origin of Christianity.
Chicago: L.&P., 1981.

Jackson, John G.  "Egypt and Christianity." Egypt
Revisited. Edited by Ivan Van Sertima. New Brunswick:
Transaction Books, 1982: 65-80.

Jackson, John. G.  The African Origin of the Myths and
Legends of the Garden of Eden. Chicago: MASS, 1984.

Jackson, John G.  Was Jesus Christ a Negro? Chicago:
MASS, 1984.

Jackson, John G.  Christianity Before Christ. Austin:
American Atheist Press, 1985.

Jackson, John G.  Black Reconstruction in South
Carolina. Austin: American Atheist Press, 1987.

Jackson, John G.  The Golden Ages of Africa. Austin:
American Atheist Press, 1987.

Jackson, John G. Hubert H. Harrison: The Black
Socrates. Austin: American Atheist Press, 1987.

Jackson, John G.  "Krishna and Buddha: Black Gods of
Asia." African Presence in Early Asia. Rev. ed. Edited
by Runoko Rashidi and Ivan Van Sertima. New Brunswick:
Transaction Books, 1996: 106-11.

Jackson, John G. Ages of Gold and Silver and Other
Short Sketches of Human History. Foreword by Madalyn
O'Hair. Austin: American Atheist Press, 1990.

Jackson, John G.  Introduction to The Story of the
Moors in Spain, by Stanley Lane-Poole. Baltimore:
Black Classic Press, 1990.

Jackson, John G.  "The Empire of the Moors." Compiled,
with an Appendix, by Runoko Rashidi. Golden Age of the
Moor. Edited by Ivan Van Sertima. New Brunswick:
Transaction Books, 1992: 85-92.



Huggins, Willis Nathaniel, and John Glover Jackson.  A
Guide to the Study of African History: Directive Lists
for Schools and Clubs. New York: New York Federation
of History Clubs, 1934.

Huggins, Willis Nathaniel, and John Glover Jackson.
An Introduction to African Civilizations with Main
Currents in Ethiopian History. New York: Avon House,
1937; rpt. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.


Message: 13
   Date: Wed, 31 Mar 2004 17:31:32 -0800 (PST)
   From: Runoko Rashidi <>
Subject: Re: Trip to Brazil

Peace Family,

If anyone cares to check out part of my trip in Brazil's Carnival go to the following website.



Message: 14
   Date: Thu, 1 Apr 2004 09:29:47 -0800 (PST)
   From: Kenneth King <>
Subject: Kids have African-Israeli identity, but Ethiopian parents still foreigners

Kids have African-Israeli identity,
but Ethiopian parents still foreigners
By Dina Kraft

TEL AVIV, March 28 (JTA) — Down a dark, smokey
stairwell and in a basement disco of swirling colored
lights, the music grows louder — a thumping beat with
lilting Amharic lyrics piped through speakers and
echoing onto a packed dance floor of young Ethiopian

In the jostling crowd that is almost exclusively
Ethiopian, women in tight jeans and tank tops, and men
sporting baggy rapper-style pants and denim jackets,
dance in small, traditional Ethiopian-style circles.

“I’m here to see people, to laugh, to soak up the
atmosphere. I prefer Amharic music because it is my
language,” says Muluzta Sami, a 21-year-old sporting a
goatee. Sami immigrated to Israel in 1991 from a
village near Addis Ababa and he speaks flawless

The mix of Western and African culture at the Zamena
club, one of a small number of discos that cater to
Israel’s young Ethiopian immigrant set, appears to be
an extension of these young Ethiopians’ experience in
life in Israel in general.

Some were born in Israel or came here as young
children. Along with their parents, they made their
way to Israel as part of the modern exodus-style
airlifts of Operations Moses and Solomon in 1984-85
and 1991.

They are members of the Ethiopian Jewish community
known as Beta Israel. For centuries, its members —
some rabbis speculate they are the lost Israelite
tribe of Dan — dreamed of Jerusalem and observed
Temple-era Jewish rites from their thatched huts in
remote rural villages in Africa.

Today they are young Israeli university students, army
officers, lawyers and social workers.

But 20 years after the first major wave of immigration
to the Jewish state from Ethiopia, there also are
disproportionately high numbers of unemployed and high
school dropouts among them. The youth and their
parents are a community in transition, the euphoria of
their arrival having long been replaced with the hard
realities of making a life in modern Israel.

“In recent years the economic situation in Israel has
been very difficult, but the ones who have suffered
most are the Ethiopians,” says Adisu Massala, a former
Knesset member who now chairs the United Ethiopian
Jewish Organization, an umbrella organization of
Ethiopian groups.

“They are new to country, have no inside connections
when it comes to getting jobs, lack language” skills,
he says. “This is a community that came here with

The problem, Massala says, is not that there is a
dearth of money allocated for the community’s
absorption, but a lack of qualitative, smart programs
that will help lift the community out of poverty and
into the Israeli mainstream.

The majority of Ethiopian families struggle
financially. A recent survey by the JDC-Brookdale
Institute in Jerusalem revealed that in up to 56
percent of households with children, neither parent
has a job. Furthermore, most adults who are employed
are in low-wage, menial jobs. Many families say they
are living in apartments that either are overcrowded
or poorly maintained.

Of the some 90,000 Ethiopians living in Israel, an
estimated 70 percent are illiterate in Hebrew. That,
experts say, contributes to the high rate of
unemployment: 53 percent for men and 65 percent for

Research shows that the longer an immigrant has lived
in the country, the more likely he or she is to be
employed. Similarly, the length of time an immigrant
has been here also appears to affect how much they are
socially integrated into the fabric of Israeli

Israel faced an unprecedented challenge when it began
absorbing the Ethiopian Jews en masse — a community
that previously had known only rural life in Ethiopia.
Its members had to be instructed not only in Hebrew
and the basics of Israeli society, but in the basics
of modern living — starting with how to flush a toilet
and cook on a stove.

The success of their absorption has been mixed in part
due to mistakes made in the immediate aftermath of
Operations Moses and Solomon. For example, for most of
them, their first home in Israel was in isolated
mobile-home communities in remote parts of the country
or on the edges of Israeli cities.

Many children were sent off to religious boarding
schools, sometimes rupturing delicate family bonds and

The children then “live in conflict, feeling on one
hand that they are part of Israeli society, but when
they go home they must go back to cultural codes of
the community,” says Chaim Salem, who works in the
Ministry of Absorption’s Ethiopian division and
emigrated from Ethiopia in 1984. “They are neither
here nor there, but in the middle, which creates a
conflict between themselves and their parents.”

Former Ethiopian boarding-school students also
complain that their educations were substandard. The
focus was study of Jewish texts and training for
professions like auto mechanics and sewing instead of
preparation to pass bagrut exams — high school
matriculation exams that pave the way for university

In recent years, fewer and fewer Ethiopian children
have been attending boarding schools, and although the
linkage is not clear, the number of those passing
bagrut exams has soared. In the early 1990s, only 10
percent passed the test; today, more than 40 percent

In the Ethiopian community, where about 60 percent of
the population is under the age of 19, ensuring the
young are properly educated is the best strategy for
ensuring successful absorption into Israeli society,
says Chen Lifshitz, a senior researcher at Brookdale
who has done extensive research on Ethiopians in

One of the biggest challenges in education, she says,
is a lack of confidence among Ethiopians students in
the classroom. This, in turn affects their future

“They do not have support from home; they often don’t
understand what is happening in class,” she says. The
result often is that the students tune out, physically
present but not absorbing the material.

In part, she says, this is because they return home
from school to parents with poor Hebrew who cannot
help them with their homework or afford private

In a move to make Ethiopians homeowners, the
government has provided generous mortgage packages
that allow them to buy their own apartments — but, as
when they first immigrated, the only homes available
often are in remote, disadvantaged areas where schools
and social services are less than adequate.

Some critics say the tragedy of the story of Ethiopian
immigration to Israel is that despite all of Israel’s
good intentions, the government took a community that
had been functional and independent in Ethiopia and
created in it a great dependency on the social-service
network here.

Meanwhile, the economic gaps in Israeli society in
general are widening as government benefits to the
poor are cut, and Ethiopians, like other immigrant
groups, are especially hard hit.

Resources in general for the Ethiopian community are
shrinking as philanthropic funding has fallen along
with a decline in the number of volunteers working in
the community, research has found.

Some of the money earmarked for the absorption of
veteran Ethiopian immigrants is now going to newcomers
— members of the Falash Mura community. The Falash
Mura are Ethiopians whose ancestors converted to
Christianity, often under great pressure, but who now
are returning to Judaism with the help of
international Jewish aid agencies and immigrating to

One innovative job-creation program for Ethiopians
trains them as bus drivers in the Tel Aviv area. Some
80 people are enrolled in the training program, and a
few dozen are already on the roads. Once hired, they
can expect a salary of about $1,330 a month after
taxes — roughly the average Israeli salary.

“We know that when parents work, the model is
different, the absorption is different, everything
changes,” says Zipi Pinkus, who oversees immigration
and absorption for the Jewish Agency for Israel, which
sponsors the training program. “When they do not work
in professions, they have menial jobs that do not
always help them break out of the cycle of poverty.”

Back at the Zamena club, the young revelers greet each
other according to Ethiopian tradition — with kisses
on both cheeks. Discussing their sentiments towards
Israel, some express bitter alienation. Others say
Israel is 100 percent their home.

“We are Jews, We love Eretz Yisrael,” says Asher
Mukat, 18, a soldier serving in an armored infantry
unit in the Gaza Strip. “But I don’t feel Israeli. The
American Jews who helped get us get out, I hope they
will now help me get to America. Here people look at
us like rubbish — that is how I feel. I don’t see my
future here.”

But 21-year-old Aviv, who asked to be identified only
by her first name, says it is different for those,
like her, who were born in Israel.

“My whole life is here,” she says, pushing back her
long braids and flashing a bright smile.

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