From: Subject: BLACK INDIANS COMBAT RACISM Date: Sun, 25 Apr 2004 14:08:22 -0400 MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0000_01C42ACE.C4D15820"; type="text/html" X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V6.00.2800.1165 This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0000_01C42ACE.C4D15820 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Location: http://www.globalblacknews.com/BlackIndian.html BLACK INDIANS COMBAT RACISM
 


MAIN=20 PAGE

Black Indians Combat Racism

 


By Marilyn Vann
June 12, = 2002

The status of Black Indians in the Seminole nation has recently = been=20 highlighted by both the Black and mainstream press. However, it = appears to=20 be less well known that the status of Black Indians in other = tribes is=20 even worse.

In 1866, the US government and the governments of the Five = "Civilized=20 Tribes" (Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Creek and Chickasaw) made = agreements=20 that Blacks who had been enslaved by tribal members would receive = all of=20 the rights of natives of those tribes. In order to comply with the = treaties, the tribal governments of those nations except for the = Chickasaw=20 adopted the former slaves into the tribes.

For many years, the new tribal members and their descendents = lived in=20 peace and harmony with their former masters, participating in = tribal=20 governments, obtaining education, etc without lynchings and other=20 harrassment which was occuring in the US after reconstruction = ended.=20 However, about 1900, the Dawes Commission was authorized to take a = census=20 of the citizens of the tribes in order to give each citizen an = allotment=20 of land, so that the majority of the tribal land could be = transferred to=20 whites for nominal amounts of money.

The Dawes Commission, acting under the old "one drop of blood" = criteria=20 refused for the most part to record the degrees of Indian blood of = the=20 Black tribal members. It must be remembered that the majority of = the Black=20 tribal members did have Indian blood, either through legal = marriages=20 between Blacks and Indians or through concubinage of Black women = during=20 the slavery period.

Estrangements between the Black Indian and the "white Indian" = tribal=20 members worsened after Oklahoma became a state when the new state=20 immediately passed Jim Crow laws requiring anyone with "one drop = of=20 African blood" to go to segregated schools. Additionally Blacks = were=20 forbidden to marry whites as well as Indians. The new state = exempted=20 Indians who had no African descent from these laws.

The federal government now uses the census rolls (the Dawes = Rolls) made=20 at the turn of the twentieth century to deny almost all of the = Black=20 Indians the Federal benefits such as scholarships, participation = in Indian=20 health service programs, etc. which are provided to "Indians", by = saying=20 that the Black Indians cannot prove their degrees of Indian blood = since=20 their ancestors Indian blood was not recorded 100 years ago.

Although the tribes could enroll the Black Indians as tribal = members=20 based on their descendency from the Dawes rolls and allow them to=20 participate in those programs for which the Federal government = does not=20 require "degrees of Indian blood", the tribes have passed = constitutions or=20 tribal acts which require all applicants for Tribal membership to = prove=20 their ancestors had Indian blood.

It must be pointed out that some of this rejection of Blacks is = due to=20 current Federal government policy; those tribes such as the = Lumbees,=20 located in the Eastern United States which have had more = intermarriage=20 with Blacks have had more difficulties in being recognized by the = US=20 government as Federally recognized tribes, than those where the = native=20 tribal members for the most part only intermarried with whites. =

It must be remembered that the Black Indians not only have = treaty=20 rights, but have earned the right to be enrolled in the tribes and = treated=20 the same as other tribal members due to the slave labor of their=20 ancestors. It is imperative that the Black Community become aware = of the=20 institutionalized racism of the US government and of the 5 tribes = since=20 millions of Federal funds are involved which are poured into = Indian=20 programs.

Due to the smallness of the native community, the tribal = leaders and=20 tribal members have had to depend on Black support in Congress, = etc. to=20 fund various programs, and to gain elective office. Those tribes = which=20 discriminate against the descendents of Black tribal members, both = enrolled and unenrolled should not expect the Black community to = continue=20 to automatically support their tribal members candidates for = statewide or=20 national public office, support programs not required by treaty, = and=20 tribal enterprises such as smoke shops or gambling establishments. =

Members of Congress must support legislation which results in = equitable=20 treatment of Black Indians by the US government. We must ferret = out=20 racism, no matter where it is found. The Association of = Descendents of=20 Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes has been formed to = acquaint the=20 public as to the history, and political rights of Black Indians; = and to=20 determine political solutions for the injustices currently been = inflicted=20 on Black Indians. The next meeting will be held in Tulsa = Oklahoma at=20 the Rudisill library on Saturday, June 29, between 1 and 4 PM. For = more=20 information, contact acting President Marilyn Vann at = mkvann@yahoo.com=20



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